COURSES OF BIOPTICAL ART,
AUTHORED BY

Liviu Iliescu

French Version

A new field in plastic arts, related to painting and sculpture, has emerged, following research work performed for almost half a century.
It consists of a new way of creating compositions (paintings or forms in space), by introducing elements (lines, colour spots, elementary shapes), grouped into two series. The elements of a series are differentiated from the other one, as one series is meant for the left eye and the other for the right eye.
Way of achieving compositions. Rules have been established to elaborate and order differences.
These rules may be learned by the students of university schools of art, who have already acquired the tehniques of painting and sculpture.
Composition elements are based on Hermann von Helmholtz tests (colour fusion, retinal rivalry), as well on the author`s tests, such as:

- retinal "cooperation";
- psychophysical mixture of colours;
- dynamics of space depth;
- hyperrealistic effects;
- antispace in art;
- bispace in art;
- hyperspace in art.

The author provides methods to transpose these tests into artistic compositions.


Effects. Primary perceptions, not experienced in ontogenesis, are obtained, as follows:


- modification of the virtual space in time, induced by static stimuli (at the beginning of the observation process, depths are perceived to increase for one to five minutes);
- detachment of colours from the background (they seem to float, ghost-like, evincing a nacreous iridescence);
- idealization of the elements, by eliminating the lack of uniformity in their execution;
- transformation of forms within the psychic cycle;
- projecting the brightness elements reflected by surfaces into the virtual space;
- obtaining virtual irrational spaces.

Contemplation way. Some compositions may be watched with the naked eye, by modifying the convergence of the optical axes of the eyes. A simple device is generally used (a small periscope-like appliance, consisting of two plane mirrors, placed in front of one eye). The compositions (painting or form in space) appears as a conventional abstract one for normal vision. Bioptical effects are visible to the eye, either by modifying eye convergence or by using the periscope-like device. The psychic circle occurs, whenever normal vision is used.
Teaching modalities. Learning implies apprenticeship. Teaching requires 30 hours, within two months.
Rules are explained and every student is supposed to create several compositions (paintings or sculptures). The best creations may be displayed in an exhibition.
Group of ten students are most efficiently trained.
Compositions on computers. The methods I used allow to create compositions on a computer, with compositional forms in motion, appearing in space (irrational virtual space).
Chats on the Internet between several collocutors making use of lines may result in collective compositions.

Advantages may be direct or indirect.
Direct benefits


- To transpose the personal style of conventional compositions into bioptical compositions.
- To interpret some compositions of abstract painting by famous painters, by transposing them into bioptical paintings.
- To better understand abstract compositions by means of bioptical transpositions.
- To increase the affective communications, as the rational plays a secondary part.
- To escape from the static area, which includes at present the communication posibilities by means of abstract compositions.

Indirect benefits

- To train artistic sensitivity both in the creator and recipients of conventional compositions, during the performing and contemplation of these compositions.
- To reconsider one`s style, by efficiently altering conventional compositions.
- To use this art as auxiliary means in psychiatric treatments, a large majority of tested subjects evinced positive effects, provided by the increased time of watching bioptical combinations provoked by primary perceptions, as compared to the time allotted to conventional compositions.

In some cases the difference in time between the watching period of bioptical and conventional compositions exceeded tenfold.
The erection of a Psychodrome (see Bioptical Art, p. 144) might provide an important trourist attraction.